Railway Signalling and Operations FAQ: Glossary of Signalling Terms

Railway Signalling and Operations

Glossary of Signalling Terms


Mark D. Bej

Clive D. W. Feather


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Contents

Track

Track Hardware
Switches/Points
Other Forms of Track
Track Configurations
Track Use

Trains

Trains
Parts of a Train
Train Operation

Signals

Signals
Signal Interpretation
Interlockings, Stations, etc.

Terms Pertaining to Personnel
Other Terms
Index


Acknowledgements

Clive D. W. Feather, for extensive contributions on British terminology.
Dave Pierson, for many helpful comments.
Dick Makse, for definitions.
Jon Roma, for comments.

Notes

I have tried to capture as much of the meanings of the words below as possible, as broadly as possible. If you know of a meaning not included, or you spot any errors, please write me. The definitions intentionally lean toward those used in railway signalling, a field which uses some of the terms in quite specific ways which may be different from the usage among other railroaders or the general public.


Terms Pertaining to Track

Track
'Track' refers to the collection of structures upon which the train travels directly. Very generally, this means the rails, crossties (sleepers), and maybe ballast. In other words, the infrastructure.

In North America, 'track' also has a more general meaning: the entire length of the infrastructure as an entity, e.g.: "the eastbound track", "track no. 1", "no. 1 track". British equivalent: 'line'.

Line
In North America, a route. In contrast to 'track', 'line' refers to one or more tracks in a logical group. 'Lines' are typically spoken of in terms of their endpoints or some intermediate points: "the line to Chicago"; "the line via Yazoo City".

Generally, lines are formally named. A scheme used by some railroads names lines, in decreasing order of importance/traffic volume: "___ Main Line" (or "___ Line"), "Branch", "Secondary Track", "Industrial Track", "Running Track". Another scheme expands on the concept of Division, naming each line "___ Subdivision".

In Britain, 'line' is used both for a specific track of a set and for the set as a whole.

Rail
'Rail' is the steel member upon which the train wheels rest. Previously rails were wooden, or wood with metal strips.

Crosstie
N. Am: The wooden cross-member that supports the rails. Crossties are less commonly made of concrete or steel, or sometimes absent, as when rails are set directly into concrete.

Sleeper
British: equivalent to American 'crosstie'.

Tie
N. Am.: Short for 'crosstie'.

Tie plate
N. Am.: A metal plate placed between the rail and crosstie, more widely to distribute the load (car weight) from the rail to the crosstie.

Chair
British: equivalent to American 'tie plate'.

Fish plate
A metal bar with holes, used to join the ends of 2 pieces of rail.

Ballast
The rocks (gravel) into which the track is set.

Spikes
Square steel rods, with a tapered end and off-set head, used for attaching the rail to the crosstie.

Clips
Where used, a "G" shaped piece of metal used to attaching the rail to the crosstie with a specific type of tie plate. In North America, the phrase "Pandrol clip", utilizing the manufacturer's name, is usually heard.

Gauge
The distance between the rail heads.

Standard Gauge
When used generally, 4 feet 8.5 inches (1435 mm). However, a given locale (country, etc.) may have its own standard, and thus its own understanding of "standard gauge".

Narrow Gauge
Any gauge narrower than Standard Gauge. Common ones include 1 meter gauge; 3 foot gauge; 2.5 foot gauge.

Broad Gauge
Any gauge broader than Standard Gauge. In the U.S., predecessors of the Erie were built to a (?6-foot) broad gauge; the Russian (?5 foot) gauge is a "braod gauge" with respect to the worldwide "standard gauge".

"The four foot [way]"
British [slang?] term for the [4 foot 8.5 inch] space between the rails

"The six foot [way]"
British [slang?] term for the space between two adjacent tracks; generally characterized by continuous ballast.

"The ten foot [way]"
British [slang?] term for the space two adjacent pairs of tracks, or between pairs on a curve, or between fast and slow lines (generally, whenever a gap wider than the six foot is used). All of these are also "N foot way". Generally characterized by the lack of continuous ballast.

Cess
British: the formation outside the ballast.


Terms Pertaining to Switches/Points

This is one of the most problematic areas of American/British usage.

Switch
In America, pertains to the entire assembly that allows trains to move from one track to another. Equivalent to British 'points'.

Turnout

Point
The tapered, mobile rail of a switch, nearly always found as a pair.

Points
N. Am: plural of 'point' (q.v.).

Britain: in the plural, equivalent to the N. Am. meaning. Used as a singular noun or in a noun phrase ("a points"; "a pair of points"), refers to the entire assembly, i.e., equivalent to N. Am. 'switch'.

At the signalling level, "points" refer to all the points that are controlled as a single control lever or electrical circuit; thus a crossover could form one points. The points (Br.) are differentiated by designating an "A end" and "B end", etc.

Stock Rail
The outermost rails of a switch (N. Am.), the ones unbroken by gaps of any sort. Most frequently one is straight and one curved; both may be curved in some circumstances.

Closure Rail
The nonmobile rail just beyond the point, between that and the frog. Most frequently, one is straight and one curved.

Frog
N. Am.: The assembly of a switch where the two rails cross over each other. British equivalent: 'crossing'. The angle of a frog is generally given as a "number", denoting the ratio of offset to run. A #10 frog (a slow speed frog for the prototype, but a very "long" or "shallow" frog for model use) causes the track to diverge 1 meter for each 10 meters of forward travel.

Britain: The pointed end of a crossing. Synonym: nose. N. Am. equivalent: 'toe (of frog)'.

Crossing
N. Am.: not related to switches. Refers to the structure allowing one track to cross over another.

Britain: general term equivalent to N. Am. 'frog'. If the angle is acute, this is a 'common crossing'; if obtuse, an 'obtuse crossing'. Also 'crossing work'.

Toe (of frog)
N. Am.: The pointed end of a frog.

Toe (of frog)
N. Am.: The blunt end of a frog.

Nose (of crossing)
Britain: The pointed end of a crossing. Synonym: frog. N. Am. equivalent: 'toe (of frog)'.

Flangeway
The channels within a frog (N. Am.) that allow the wheel flange to pass.

Guard Rail
Two short rails, parallel to the stock rails, that help prevent derailing. Guard rails are typically placed at the point where the opposite wheel is going through frog. Some applications required longer (some nearly full-length) guard rails. British: 'check rail'. Term also used in other contexts, such as on a bridge.

Check Rail
British: equivalent to N. Am. 'guard rail'. Term also used in other contexts, such as on a bridge.

Wing Rails
Two small rails, at the heel (N. Am.) end of the frog (N. Am.), parallel to the wheel path along the frog, that help prevent derailing.

Single-Slip Switch

Diamond with Single Slip

British: equivalent to N. Am. 'single-slip switch'.

Double-Slip Switch
A complex piece of trackwork with 2 entrances and 2 exits. A train entering at either entrance may be shunted to either of the 2 exits. Used sparingly due to high maintenance costs -- generally only in busy terminals where space is a premium.

Double-slip switches have a relatively acute angle, #8 or #10. Some have 4 frogs (N. Am.), others have only 2 frogs and movable points.

Diamond with Double Slip
British: equivalent to N. Am. 'double-slip switch'.

Movable-frog switch
N. Am.: A switch with a movable, rather than fixed, frog. Years ago quite a (surprising) number were installed in many locations, even in small yards and the like. Abandoned, probably because of high maintenance. Used now mostly in very high speed trackwork, for frog numbers that would otherwise not allow continuous wheel-rail contact.

Swing-nose points
British equivalent to N. Am. 'movable-frog switch'.

Facing
Adjective indicating that the train is approaching the sharp ends of the points. In N. Am., the usage "facing-point switch" is often seen; in Britain, "facing points". Similar usage, in N. Am. and Britain, for crossovers.

Trailing
Adjective indicating that the train is approaching from the frog (N. Am.) end.


Terms Pertaining to Other Forms of Track

Crossing
N. Am.: the piece of track that allows two tracks to cross over one another at grade. Also 'crossing diamond'.

British: see under Switches.

Diamond crossing
British: equivalent to N. Am. 'crossing'.

Movable-point crossing
A crossing (N. Am.) which is not solid, but rather, has moving points.

Switch diamond
British: equivalent to N. Am. 'movable-point crossing'.


Terms Pertaining to Track Configurations

Switch and crossing work
Britain: general term for the various ways that tracks intersect each other and trains are routed around junctions.

Main line
The principal lines (routes) of a given railroad company, or country's rail network.

Main track
The principal track for travel, of a given line. That is, branch lines, secondary lines, etc. generally have a designated 'main track'. (They may also have subsidiary tracks such as sidings, yard tracks, etc.)

Siding
N. Am.: any track of lower rank that comes off the main track. It may be double-ended (rejoin the main track) but does not have to. Usually runs approximately parallel to the main track (cf. 'spur').

Britain: a single-ended track of lower rank that comes off the main track, either parallel or not parallel to the main track. Much less commonly double-ended. Usually a location where trains are stored while out of use (or being cleaned, loaded, unloaded, etc.). Sidings at yards are often double-ended; a common layout consists of "reception sidings", "sorting sidings", and "departure sidings" in sequence.

Loop
N. Am. and Britain: a track that comes back on itself, allowing a train to change its direction of travel. Probably the best known example is Sunnyside Yard.

Britain, most commonly: a track that comes off the main track, parallels the main track, then rejoins it in the same direction, allowing trains to pass or cross (Br.). Specific uses may be specified, as in "platform loop", "goods loop". Occasionally applied to more unusual arrangements, e.g., long crossovers, long connections between lines crossing at 90 degrees.

Passing Siding
[N.Am.] A siding used for trains to meet or pass.

Crossing
In America, a place where one track meets and crosses over the other without any connection. Each crossing has 4 frogs, and nowadays, is often prefabricated.

Crossover
Two switches that allow a train to switch from one track to a parallel track. British usage also defines 'right hand' and 'left hand' with respect to the normal direction of travel on the left-hand track.

        ---*-----
            \      crossover
        -----*---  (right hand)
		

Double Crossover
N. Am.: Two crossovers, of opposite configuration, whose diverging routes cross in the middle. British: 'scissors crossover'.

        ---*-*---  double
            X      crossover
        ---*-*---
		

Britain: a particular track configuration consisting of parallel diverging routes, allowing parallel simultaneous movements:


        -------*----
              /       double
        -----X--*---  crossover
            /  /      (left hand)
        ---*--X-----
             /
        ----*-------
		

Scissors crossover
British equivalent of N. Am. 'double crossover'.

Wye
N. Am.: Literally, track arranged in the form of a letter "Y" with the endpoints joined. In some locations the trackage simply lends itself to such an arrangement. In others, one end of the wye is a stub-end track of limited length used for turning locomotives with or without cars.

             |
             *
            / \
        ---*---*---
		

Wye track
N. Am.: For 2 tracks that are far from parallel and either cross, at grade or not, a track that joins the two tracks by curving from one to the other. Named because of its resemblance to one leg of a wye (N. Am., q.v.). If 2 such wye tracks exist, not in diagonally opposite quadrants, locomotives or trains can be turned to face the opposite direction.

             |               |
       wye   *               *
      track /|               *\ wye tracks
           / |              /| \
          /  |             / |  \
       --*---+---      ---*-]|[--*--
             |               |
		

Ladder [track]
A multiply branched track allowing train movement from one track to one of many tracks. Frequently found at the ends of yards or at both sides of large passenger stations. Ladder tracks are usually in a one-to-many arrangement; however, many-to-many arrangements exist as well.

        --*--------------------
           \
            *------------------
             \
              *----------------
               \
                *--------------
		

Ladder Siding
British: equivalent to N. Am. 'ladder'.

Turnout
Britain: a track configuration where one track joins into another:

              /                          /  /
             /                          /  /
        ----*----  turnout         ----*--X----  double turnout
                                         /
                                   -----*------
		

Junction
N. Am.: general term for the location where two tracks, often of two different railroad companies, come near each other and typically either join or include an interchange track.

Britain: particular junctions of tracks as follows:


                  /  /                    /  /              --*------------
                 *--/                  /-/  /                  \              ladder
                /                     /    /                ----*-*--------  junction
        -----*-*-----  single      --*--*-*----  double            \
            /           lead           /          lead      --------*-*----
        ---*--------- junction     ---*-------- junction               \
                                                            ------------*--
		

Yard

Receiving Yard

Classification Yard

Departure Yard


Terms Pertaining to Signal Hardware

Arm
Each movable semaphore blade comprising a signal. In N. Am., analogously applied to lighted signals. Each arm provides a singular piece of information: 1 color, or 1 position, or 1 position and its attendant color. [Can anyone think of a case where the last sentence is NOT true?] Notably, 45 CFR ([U.S.] Code of Federal Regulations) seems to limit 'arm' to its literal meaning.

Board
British: slang for semaphore blade.

N. Am.: slang, usually with an adjective ("clear board", "red board"). Probably stems from one method of displaying train order signals wherein a light was placed in front of a specific color board or flag.

Peg
British: slang for semaphore blade.

Head
For lighted signals, a term describing the apparatus consisting of signal face, bulbs, lenses, and enclosure.

Face
A portion of a signal head, larger than the light-producing area (lens, etc.), which serves as a background and to blot out other potential interfering light sources, whether natural or artificial. Signal faces are almost invariably flat pieces of metal; may be round or square; are typically painted a dark color, frequently black; in Europe may be outlined but in America nearly invariably are not.

Semaphore signal
A signal which provides its indication by position of an arm. The end of the arm typically points to the right on railroads with right-hand operation; to the left on railroads with left-hand operation. Blade colors and blade shapes may or may not be significant. Night aspects are typically given by color of light, via roundels near the fulcrum of the arm.

Doll
Britain: an arm carrying a signal blade that shorter than the main signal masts.

Doll arm
N. Am.: a short subsidiary arm on a signal mast, bracket post, or signal bridge, usually with a light or reflectorized marker on it. The doll arm may be vertical only or may be horizontal, then vertical; the light or marker is most commonly blue or purple in color. A doll arm indicates that a track intervenes between the signal mast and the track to which the signal applies, e.g.:

                              |O
                             O|     doll
                              |O  B arm
                              |   |
                              +---*
                              |
                              |
        _I____I_  _I____I_   ---
		
where 'B' is the blue light or reflector on the doll arm, and the signal to its left refers to the left track, not the right track.

Position-light signal
A signal which uses the configuration of 2 or more lights to provide indications (information, meaning), and for which color is without meaning. In N. Am., implemented on Pennsylvania, Lehigh Valley, and Norfolk & Western as main and dwarf signals; also implemented on Erie as train order signals. In Britain, implemented as shunt signals.

Color-light signal
N. Am.: A signal that uses color to provide indications.
As used by signalmen (signal engineers, signal maintainers, etc.) this term is used specifically to identify signal heads that have 1 lamp for each color (cf. 'searchlight')
As used by (at least some) books of rules, this term encompasses the term 'searchlight' (q.v.).

British: 'Colour-light signal' includes searchlights, as does "multiple-aspect signal".

Disc signal
Britain:

Color-position-light signal
N. Am.: A signal that uses both color and position to redundantly provide indications. Only one color is associated with any given position, though this may vary according to the signal arm involved. Use was limited to Baltimore & Ohio (1920s to present) and Norfolk & Western (1950s to present), both now being removed, the latter a bit more quickly so. Amtrak has colorized former PRR signals, and these now qualify for the term 'CPL signal'.

Marker
A subsidiary signal light, often with a smaller or no face, which modifies the "main" aspect. [How official is such usage?] Sometimes used for a single arm of a signal when that arm can only show one color.

Dummy
British: a ground disc or shunting arm.

N. Am.:

Junction indicator
British: a row of 5 white lights indicating a diverging route.

Feather
British: Slang for 'junction indicator'.

Theatre indicator
British: a signal showing a number or letter when illuminated, indicating a route.

[Signal] Mast
The vertical pole, usually round, on which the signal head(s) or arm(s) is/are mounted.

Bracket Post
A pole supporting a platform, designed for the mounting of 2 or more signals (and their masts).

Signal bridge
A structure for mounting signals that spans one or more tracks. Signal bridges may be footed on both ends, or they may be 'cantilever signal bridges', footed only on one end.

High signal
A full-sized signal, mounted high, on a mast, bracket post, or signal bridge. Use of high signals is reserved, on some railroads, for main tracks, or when the current of traffic is toward that signal.

Dwarf signal, low signal
A signal, usually proportioned smaller than a high signal, mounted low, on the ground or just above it. Usually intended for use in low-speed areas such as terminal trackage, for trains travelling against the current of traffic, etc. Dwarf signals aspects may or may not match high signal aspects of the same name. On some railroads, dwarf signals can only display the lowest-speed aspects; on others, they can display a much wider range.

Pedestal signal
A 2-unit signal usually mounted on a short pedestal, implemented only on the PRR, to provide high-signal indications with dwarf-style aspects. Usually used in locations with little room for a high signal.

Slot, slotting
A "slot", or "slotting", is an arrangement whereby two signalmen can control a signal independently (neither's lever affects the other), with the logic resolved at the signal itself.
Signals: "High", "dwarf", and "pedestal" aren't used. "Ground signal" means a shunting signal, whether or not ground-mounted. A running signal at ground level is not a ground signal. "Co-acting signals" show the same aspect and are within a couple of metres track-direction of the main signal. "Repeaters" show a modified aspect, and are significantly in rear. Both forms are used to extend sighting in some way. A "distant" signal shows a summary of the signals ahead, and is *not* automatic; the signalman can set it to a more restrictive aspect than a repeater at the same location would have.


Terms Pertaining to Signal Use and Interpretation

Aspect
The physical appearance of the signal to the engineer/driver, which may include lights, color of lights, position of lights, positions and color of blades, presence of number plates or other modifying markers, and so forth. In N. America, generally used to include modifying 'marker' lamps of various sorts. On any one railroad, multiple aspects may map to one aspect name and indication (q.v.). In Britain, feathers or theatre signals are not considered part of the aspect, and a splitting distant is considered to show 2 aspects.

Aspect Name
The name given to one or more aspects that have one indication (meaning). E.g., aspect 1: red, aspect 2: red over red, aspect 3: red over red over red may all be named "Stop Signal".

Indication
The meaning conveyed by an aspect. There is a one-to-one mapping of Aspect Name to Indication, but a (potentially) many-to-one mapping of Aspect to Indication.

Home Signal

Distant Signal

Splitting Distant Signal

Repeater signal
In America, a signal whose aspect exactly copies another signal's aspect. Repeaters are used where the "main" signal cannot be seen early enough because of an obstruction of the line of sight: bridges, piers, track curvature, etc. They may be in the rear of ("before") the "main" signal. [British: "co-acting signal"; must (?) be at the same location along the track, but is either on the other side or at a different height] In Britain, a "repeater" signal may have a different aspect from the signal ahead; they are used to provide additional sighting distance for the signal ahead.

Fixed Signal

Signal Fixed at ___

Call-on signal
A signal at some minimal aspect, allowing movement into an occupied block that would ordinarily be disallowed, and requiring greater than usual vigilence on the part of the locomotive engineer. Usually used when two trains are to couple and become one; or to allow a locomotive into an occupied block to couple to a train for rescue or as a helper (pusher) engine. For color-light signals, usually Restricting (usually red over yellow or red over red over yellow); other railroads used Stop and Proceed, where this could be distinguished.

Calling-on signal
Britain: a signal is one which gives a train permission to pass a main signal at Danger in order to enter an occupied section (Br.).

Calling-off signal
Britain: a signal which allows a train engine to shunt forward past a signal at Danger; typically it only gives permission to enter the first part of the section (Br.) ahead, not the whole section.


Terms Pertaining to Trains

Train

Wagon

Car


Terms Pertaining to Operations

To Pass
Britain: the act of one train going by another train in the same direction in a location prescribed for doing so.

N. Am.: generalized to one train going by another in either direction.

To Cross
In Britain, the act of one train going by another in the opposite direction in a location prescribed for doing so (a crossing loop).


Terms Pertaining to Interlockings, etc.

Ground Frame
In N. America, a minimal interlocking that was not usually protected by a cabin or tower (although some were) and which were literally mounted on the ground in the open.

Station

Interlocking Limits

Interlocking

Station Limits


Terms Pertaining to Personnel

Driver
In Britain, the person primarily responsible for operating the locomotive.

Engineer
In N. America (and somewhat confusingly), equivalent to British 'driver'.

Fireman
On steam locomotives, the person responsible for 'firing' the locomotive, i.e., ensuring a supply of fuel.

Brakeman
The person responsible for lining hand-thrown switches/points. May be one on the 'head end' (locomotive) and another on the rear end, where cabooses are used.

Conductor
The person officially (in N. Am.) in charge of the train's overall operation. Previously, usually worked out of the caboose on the rear end of the train.

C&E
"Conductor & Engineer". Common abbreviation found on train orders indication to whom the train order was addressed.

Train Crew
Traditionally on N. American freight trains, the conductor, engineer, fireman, and head and rear end brakemen. This number has dwindled over the years from 5 to the now common 2. Passenger train crews are somewhat different.

Signalman
In N. Am., a general term for someone involved in the operation of signals.

Leverman
A person whose function is to throw the levers for switches/points and signals, under the direction of a Tower Operator (q.v.)

Operator, Tower Operator, Towerman
A person controlling a usually relatively short stretch of track, often only one interlocking, under the direction of a dispatcher. Larger interlocking towers had more than one operator, with varying official titles.

Dispatcher
A person controlling a longer stretch of track, often an entire division. Traditionally, dispatching was done by writing times on long sheets of paper, via communication with tower operators. Recently, dispatchers have been taking on tasks traditionally associated with operators, with computers assisting in the 'paper'work.


Other Terms

Slide Fence
N. Am.: A fence designed to be displaced slightly by a rock or earthslide. When displaced it operates electrical switches connected to the signalling system, to alert trains.

High Water Detector
Uses a float switch to detect flood conditions, as for slide fence.

Hot Box Detector (HBD)
N. Am.: A wayside apparatus used to check for overheated wheel bearings (journals; "hot boxes"), stuck brakes, etc. Overheated bearings, etc. are critical as they can easily derail a train at speed. Sometimes supplemented by 'smart' acoustic sensors that listen for stuck brakes and failing bearings. Historically the earliest of a variety of automatic detectors which monitor the 'health' of trains.

Older models (sometimes called "servos") had a paper read-out at the nearest interlocking tower (signal box). Some, at a distance from towers, flashed a light that would be visible by the conductor or brakeman in the caboose. Still others are wired into the signal system. Rather popular presently in the U.S. are HBDs with computer-generated voice that communicate directly over the radio with the train crew.

Hot Axlebox Detector
Britain: equivalent to N. Am. 'hotbox detector'.

Dragging Equipment Detector (DED)
A series of heavy metal flaps, between the rails and just outside them. Designed to be struck by any loose pieces of a railcar, thereby operating an electrical switch and signalling the train to stop. Communication methods are similar to those of HBDs (q.v. supra).

High-wide load Detector / High Car Detector (HCD)
Optical detector that monitors for oversize loads, to prevent them being routed erroneously, with resulting damage to bridges, tunnel portals, or the load itself.

Shifted Load detector
Optical detector that mintors for large loads that may have shifted.


Index

Ballast
Cess
Chair
Clips
Crosstie
Fish plate
Four foot [way], the
Line
Rail
Six foot [way], the
Sleeper
Spikes
Ten foot [way], the
Tie
Tie plate
Track
Switch
Turnout
Point
Points
Stock Rail
Closure Rail
Frog
Crossing
Toe (of frog)
Toe (of frog)
Nose (of crossing)
Flangeway
Guard Rail
Check Rail
Wing Rails
Single-Slip Switch
Diamond with Single Slip
Double-Slip Switch
Diamond with Double Slip
Movable-frog switch
Swing-nose points
Facing
Trailing
Crossing
Diamond crossing
Movable-point crossing
Switch diamond
Switch and crossing work
Main line
Main track
Siding
Loop
Passing Siding
Crossing
Crossover
Double Crossover
Scissors crossover
Wye
Wye track
Ladder [track]
Ladder Siding
Turnout
Junction
Yard
Receiving Yard
Classification Yard
Departure Yard
Arm
Board
Peg
Head
Face
Semaphore signal
Doll
Doll arm
Position-light signal
Color-light signal
Disc signal
Color-position-light signal
Marker
Dummy
Junction indicator
Feather
Theatre indicator
[Signal] Mast
Bracket Post
Signal bridge
High signal
Dwarf signal, low signal
Pedestal signal
Slot, slotting
Aspect
Aspect Name
Indication
Home Signal
Distant Signal
Splitting Distant Signal
Repeater signal
Fixed Signal
Signal Fixed at ___
Call-on signal
Calling-on signal
Calling-off signal
Train
Wagon
Car
To Pass
To Cross
Ground Frame
Station
Interlocking Limits
Interlocking
Station Limits
Driver
Engineer
Fireman
Brakeman
Conductor
C&E
Train Crew
Signalman
Leverman
Operator, Tower Operator, Towerman
Dispatcher
Slide Fence
High Water Detector
Hot Box Detector (HBD)
Hot Axlebox Detector
Dragging Equipment Detector (DED)
High-wide load Detector / High Car Detector (HCD)
Shifted Load detector


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Mark D. Bej
bejm@eeg.ccf.org
+1 216-444-0119
1998-06-02