Signal Bibliography

Signal Bibliography

Copyright (C) 1997, Andrew Waugh

Additions by Mark Adlington marked as [MA] and others, as they have been received.


This bibliography is intended to cover books and articles with significant coverage of railway signalling and safeworking. A work may be significant either in terms of the depth of its coverage, or because there is little else available about that country or technology. It is not intended to include every article published about signalling, nor is it intended to include general railway rulebooks or operating instructions.

The bibliography is organised by country and then by date of original publication. The bibliography has been compiled from a number of sources. Many of the books and articles have been cited. Other books are known because they were referenced in other works (e.g. review articles, bibliographies at the end of books). The source of these references are usually indicated at the end of the entry. Any additional references would be appreciated.

Table of Contents

  1. Non Country Specific References
  2. Australia
  3. Austria
  4. Belgium
  5. Denmark
  6. France
  7. Germany
  8. India
  9. Ireland
  10. Italy
  11. Netherlands
  12. New Zealand
  13. North America
  14. South America
  15. Switzerland
  16. United Kingdom
  17. Unknown Countries

  1. Non Country Specific References
    1. The Invention of the Track-Circuit, American Railway Association (Signal Section), New York, 1922. (114pp)
      Contains four parts: a biography of Mr Robinson (the inventor); a biography of William A. Baldwin (Genl Supt Philadelphia & Erie Rly); a description of track circuits and improvements; and an account of track circuit use in Europe. (Review IRA Bulletin Dec 1922)
    2. Villa, Faustino, "Locomotive Cab Signals, Report No 3, All countries except France," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, pp. 821-886, May - June 1922.
      Describes JefCoat system (mechanical); GWR and Raven systems (electro-mechanical); Perry-Prentice and Horn & Crane (electro-magnetic); Answers from Belguim, Denmark, Spain, USA, UK, Australia, India, Greece, Norway, Holland, Sweden, Switzerlan, and Yugoslavia.

    3. "Locomotive Cab Signals (9th Congress, question XII) Summation at Congress," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, p. 738, Apr 1923.

    4. "Safety Appliances on Light Railways (9th Congress, question XX) Summation at Congress," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, p. 723, Apr 1923.

    5. "Locomotive Cab Signals (9th Congress, question XII) General Discussion at Congress," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, pp. 590-617, June 1923.

    6. Expert Working Group from Asia and the Far East, on Railway Operating Signalling, Railway operating and signalling techniques in Europe, Japan, and the United States of America, United Nations, New York, 1954.

    7. Mackay, N.A.M. and B.D. Martin, Bibliography on Railway Signalling, 1960-1972, Canadian Institute of Guided Ground Transport, Queen's University, 1973.
      50+vi pp Select bibliography of signalling books and articles published between 1960 and 1972 with an emphasis on post 1965.

  2. Australia
    1. Blocking Back, The Signalling Record Society (New South Wales). The newsletter of the New South Wales Group of the SRS.
      Contains histories of specific boxes, operating proceedures, and equipment used in New South Wales (Australia) and occasionally elsewhere. Contact: Send stamped, self addressed envelope to: The Secretary, 11 Deribong Place, Thornleigh, 2120, Australia. (Phone) +61 2 481 9994
    2. Somersault, The Signalling Record Society (Victoria). The newsletter of the Victorian Group of the SRS.
      Contains histories of specific boxes, operating proceedures, and equipment.used in Victoria (Australia) and occasionally elsewhere. Contact: Send stamped, self addressed envelope to: The Secretary, 60 Kenmare St, Box Hill North, 3129, Australia. (Phone) +61 8 890 6764
    3. Sinnatt, John, Clear Normal Speed, Australian Railway Historical Society (Victorian Division), 1966. (Enthusiast)
      An outline of three position signalling as used in Victoria, Australia.
    4. Taaffe, R.T., "The Development of the Distant Signal Indication in New South Wales," Bulletin, vol. XXVIII, no. 474, pp. 82-94, The Australian Railway Historical Society, April, 1977. (Continued in No 475 (May), pp 112-120, & No 476 (June), pp 136-143). (Enthusiast)
      Apart from discussing the development of the distant signal itself, this article also discusses the related development of the NSW light signal aspects.
    5. Jennings, Reece, Line Clear; 100 Years of Train Working Adelaide - Serviceton, Mile End Railway Museum, Roseworthy, SA, 1986. ISBN 0 9595073 53 pp80+4 inc biblio, ill, & diag
      A history of the safeworking and signalling used on the Adelaide to Serviceton line in South Australia. Contains an analysis of the benefits of the introduction of relay interlocking and, later, CTC. It is not a history of the line itself.
    6. Dargan, James, Safe Signals, Author, 1989. ISBN 0 7305 5869 X (Popular)
      History of signalling on the railways of New South Wales (Australia). General discussion of signalling as it applies to NSW. Not a lot of detail.

  3. Austria
    1. Kleindel, Franz and Peter Stein, Eisenbahnsignale in Oesterreich, Verlag J.O. Slezak, Vienna. (Railway signals in Austria)
      Details signals currently in use on Federal and private railways and the Vienna city railway.(SRS No 79 p 45)
    2. Hager, C, Eisenbahn-Sicherungsanlagen in Ostereich. B and I Stellwerke, Verlag Popischil, Vienna.
      History of Austrian Signalling

  4. Belgium
    1. Verdeyen, J., "Practical Study of Interlocking," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, pp. 196-216, February 1921.

    2. Lamalle, U., "The telephonic "Dispatching System" on the Belguin State Railways," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, pp. 1355-1411, November 1922.
      Describes the use of the Western Electric System
    3. Verdeyen, J., "New System of signalling on the Belguin State Railways," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, pp. 420-441, May 1923.
      Description of three position signals (including automatic signals) and how they are to be applied
    4. Minet, R., "Mechanical manipulation of the three position semaphore arms on the Belguin State Railways," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, pp. 619-695, July 1923.
      Extremely detailed discussion of signals with drawings (etc)
    5. Verdeyen, J. and R. Minet, La nouvelle signalisation des chemins de fer de l'Etat belge, Brussels, 1923. (Tweedie & Lascelles)

  5. Denmark
    1. Johannessen, and Schmedes, Stations-og Strackningssikringsanlaeggene, Copenhagen, 1919. (Tweedie & Lascelles)

    2. Sikkerhedsreglement af 1935 (SR 1935), De Danske Statsbaner (DSB -- The Danish State Railways), Koebenhavn (Copenhagen), Denmark, 1935.
      Valid from May 15, 1935. In loose-leave format with ??? sheets in the original issue and 802 update sheets issued until November 15, 1974. (
    3. Signalreglement for Privatbanerne, Koebenhavn (Copenhagen), Denmark, 1936.
      Valid from October 1, 1936. Common (signal) rule book for all Danish Private Railways. (
    4. Sikkerhedsreglement for Privatbanerne.
      Valid from October 1, 1944. Common (operation) rule book for all Danish Private Railways. (
    5. Signalreglement af 1944 (SIR 1944), De Danske Statsbaner (DSB -- The Danish State Railways), Koebenhavn (Copenhagen), Denmark, 1944.
      In loose-leave format with 120 sheets in the original issue and 491 update sheets issued until May 26, 1974. (
    6. Sikkerhedsreglement af 1975 (SR 1975), De Danske Statsbaner (DSB -- The Danish State Railways), Koebenhavn (Copenhagen), Denmark.
      Valid from January 6, 1975. General rule book of DSB with (large) chapter on signaling. In loose-leave format with 198 sheets in the original issue and 629 update sheets issued so far (until March 1, 1990). (

  6. France
    1. Maison, Ferdinand. "Locomotive Cab Signals, Report No 1, France". Bulletin of the International Railway Association, pp. 1709-1800, November 1921.
      A detailed historical account of ATC systems used in France.
    2. "Locomotive Cab Signals, Report No 2, France". Bulletin of the International Railway Association, p. 537, March 1922.
      Describes the trials and equipment used on French Northern, French Eastern, Paris-Lyon-Mediterianean Rwys, French State Rwys, French Midi Rwys, Orleans Rwys, Alsace-Lorraine Rwys, and the ZS apparatus of Bruchsal works. Sequel to report prepared in 1915 and published in Bulletin of 1921.
    3. Guay, M. le and P. Pichon. Signaux et installations fixes.
      Series of folders containing, among other things, dimensioned drawings of French signals (SRS 81)
    4. SNCF. Signalisation Mécanique. Paris: SNCF (Direction De L'Equipment).
      Published by the Frence railways for their own use but sold to the public. Intended as training manuals. (SRS No 79 p 46)
    5. SNCF. Signalisation Électrique. Paris: SNCF (Direction De L'Equipment).
      Published by the Frence railways for their own use but sold to the public. Intended as training manuals.(SRS No 79 p 46)
    6. Brame, E. and L. Aiguillon. Étude sur les signaux des chemins de fer français. Paris, Tweedie & Lascelles, 1883.

    7. Delacourt, R. and P.E. Prache. Le Block-system automatique sur les chemins de fer. Paris: Tweedie & Lascelles, 1922.

    8. Galine. Exploitation technique des chemins de fer. Paris: Tweedie & Lascelles, 1924.

    9. Vix, M. Les Installations de Sécurité des Lignes Ex-Alsace-Lorraine: Principes, Description, Fonctionnement. French National Railways, 1949.
      Description of the signalling principles and equipment of Alsace-Lorraine (which was signalled to German standards). An internal document of the French Railways - not published. (IRSE)
    10. Retiveau, Roger. La signalisation ferroviaire. Paris: Presses de l'école nationale des ponts et chaussées. (UC)
    11. Gernigon, Alain. Histoire de la signalisation ferroviaire fran&cced;aise. Paris: Editions La Vie du Rail, 1998. (11, Rue de Milan, 75440 PARIS CEDEX 09) ISBN 2-902808-69-0
      Describes the history of french railways signalling, mechanical and luminous signals, signal cabins, block instruments from 1840 to the present period and includes very good photographs and diagrams (633).

      [Jean-Pierre Gruffaz]

  7. Germany
    1. Zintl, Robert. Fahrt Frei: Bayerische Signals und Stellwerke [Line Clear: Bavarian Signals and Signal Boxes]. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag.
      History of signalling on the Royal Bavarian State Railways.(SRS No 79 p 47)

    2. Deutsche Bundesbahn. Signalbuch der Deutschen Bundesbahn.
      Issues 1959, 1981, 1987 (and probably more -- they are just editions of the 1959 issue with updates incooperated). Valid from December 15, 1959.(

    3. Scheibner, S. Die mechanischen Sicherheitsstellwerke der preussischen Staatsbahnen. 1904. (IRSE)

    4. Scholkmann, E. Signal- und Sicherungsanlagen. Eisenbahntechnik der Gegenwart, II, 1904. (IRSE)

    5. Möllering, H. "Means for preventing overrunning signals standing at danger", Bulletin of the International Railway Association, vol. III, pp. 419-430, April 1921.
      Review of historical development of ATC.
    6. Schubert-Roudolf. Die Sicherungswerke im Eisenbahnbetriebe. Berlin: Tweedie & Lascelles, 1921.

    7. Kemmann. Die selbsttätige Signalanlage der Berliner Hoch- und Untergrundbahn. Berlin: Tweedie & Lascelles, 1921.

    8. Cauer. Die Sicherungsanlagen im Eisenbahnbetriebe. Berlin: Tweedie & Lascelles, 1922.

    9. Möllering, H. Die Sicherungseinrichtungen für den Zugverkehr auf den deutschen Bahnen. Leipsig: Tweedie & Lascelles, 1927.
      A general treatise on German Signalling (IRSE)

    10. Hentzen. Das Einheitstellwerk. Berlin: Tweedie & Lascelles, 1927.

    11. Bothe, Alfred. Die selbsttätige Signalanlage der Berliner Hoch- und Untergrundbahn. Berlin: Tweedie & Lascelles, 1928.

    12. Deutsche Reichsbahn-Geselschaft. Signalbuch der Deutsche Reichsbahn-Geselschaft. Düsseldorf: Alba Verlag [reprint]. ISBN 3-87094-907-4.
      This is the 1935 issue valid from April 1, 1935. (, SRS 81)
    13. Buddenberg, Arnold. "Mechanische Sicherungsanlagen; Signale und ihre Fernbedienung", Eisenbahnsicherungsanlagen ["Mechanical Signalling; Signals and their Operating Mechanisms", Railway Signalling Installations]. Berlin: Schiele und Schön, Band 2, 1951.
      Describes the mechanical signalling on the German railways. Seems equivalent to H. Rayner Wilson's book for Germany (IRSE)
    14. Tetzlaft, Arthur. "Anleitung für Aufstellung von Signalentwürfen", Signaltechnik; Leitfaden für den Eisenbahnsignal fachmann. I, Frankfurt: Dr. Arthur Tetzlaft Verlag, 1951.
      (The arrangement of a Signalling Scheme; Signal Engineering; The Signal Engineers Guide I) Booklet covering the layout of signalling
    15. Born, Erhard. Die Bruchsaler Signalindustrie und ihr Beitrag zur Entwicklung des Eisenbahn-Signalwesens, Vereinigung der Freunde des Schönborn-Gymnasiums, Bruchsal.
      (The Signal Industry in Bruchsal and its Contribution to the Development of Railway Signalling). History of the Maschinenfabrik Bruchsal (later part of Vereinigte Eisenbahn-Signalwerke, then Siemens & Halske A.G.) (IRSE)
    16. Reschuh, Gotthold, Aus der Geschicte des Stellwerks, 8, p. Jahrbuch des Eisenbahnwesens. (The Story of the Signal Box)
      Discussion of the development of signal boxes, and interlocking frames in Germany (IRSE)
    17. Speith, Hans-Joachim, Die Signale der deutschen Eisenbahen, Alba Buchverlag, Dusseldorf, 1974. (German Railway Signals).
      Details of various types of signals with functions. Some history.(SRS No 79 p 46)
    18. Böttcher, H., Eisenbahnsignale A-Z, Transpress VEB Verlag, Berlin, 1975. (Railway Signals A-Z) East German. (SRS 81)

    19. Arnold, H.J and P. Naumann, Stellwerksdienst A-Z, Transpress VEB Verlag, Berlin, 1976. (Signalbox duty A-Z) East German. (SRS 81)

    20. Guhl, Detlef, Zugmeldung, Der Betriebsdienst der Deutschen Bundesbahn, Alba Buchverlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1979. ISBN 3-87094-061-1
      An introduction to (German) railway operation including major section on signaling. (
    21. Staatseisenbahnen, Preusische, Fahrdienstvorschriften Ausgabe 1913, G.F. Röhr Krefeld, 1979.
      Reprint of the 1913 traffic regulations of that railway (SRS 81)
    22. Pottgiesser, Hans, Hauptsignale Gestern und Heute, Dumjahn Verlag, Mainz, 1980. (Stop Signals Yesterday and Today).
      Development of the stop signal in Germany. (SRS No 79 p 47)

  8. India
    1. Hodson, Charles William, "Railway-Signalling in India," Min Proc Inst C.E., vol. Session 1909-10 Part II, 1909. 23pp + 46pp discussions + 2 plates

    2. Ghose, S.C., Freight Yards, Terminals, and Trains, 1925. Indian Practice (IRSE)

    3. Kirkness, L.H., Principles of the Absolute Block System, 1929.
      Deals with the application of the principles of Block Working to Indian Railways (IRSE)
    4. Dutton, S.T., Railway signalling, theory and practice, Lockwood's manuals, Technical Press, London, 1928. Professional (UC & SL)
      A description of the principles of signalling as applied in India. Includes chapters on: Fixed Signals; Single Line Working; Double Line Working; Signal Cabins and Signal Connections; Point and Point Connections (including wire worked points and a whole chapter on compensators!); Locking Charts and Tables; Interlocking Junctions; Facing Points; Specification of Materials.

  9. Ireland
    1. Doyle, Oliver and Stephan Hirsh, Railway lines of Coras Iompair Eireann and Northern Ireland Railways, Signal Press.
      History of railways in Ireland with heavy emphasis on signalling. Try 17, Millview Court, Malahide, Co. Dublin (1986 address) (SRS 96)

  10. Italy
    1. Tajani, F., Trattato moderno di materiale mobile ed ezercizio delle ferrovie, Rome, 1922-3. (Tweedie & Lascelles)

    2. Fascicolo dedicato al Segnalamento, p. Ingegneria Ferroviaria, Piazza Croce Rossa, Rome, May 1949. (Railway Engineering: Special Signalling Number) Description of Italian Signalling (IRSE)

    3. Raselli, C., Gli Apparati Centrali a Leve Singole, (Self Published). (Individual Lever Interlocking Frames)
      Describes the (mecahnical?) interlocking frames in use in Italy. Intended audience: signalmen. (IRSE)
    4. Lupetti, G., Apparato Centrale Elettrico ad Itinerari con Comando a Pulsanti, Italian State Railways. (Central Electrical Push Button Route Setting Apparatus).
      Description of the standardised route setting apparatus in use in Italy. Not published; intended for use by employees.

  11. Netherlands
    1. Dufour, L.H.N., Het Seinweyen op de Nederlandsche Spoorwegen, Utrecht, 1915. (Tweedie & Lascelles)

    2. de Jong, F., Over Ons Seinreglement, Nederlandsche Vereniging van Spoor en Tramwegpersoneel. (Our Signal Regulations Explained)
      Intended to explain to Railway operating staff the meaning and application of the various signal aspects, bell signal codes, warning boards (etc) in use in the Netherlands (IRSE)
    3. Verstegen, J.H., Automatisch Blokstelsel op de Nederlandsche Spoorwegen, Netherlands Railway, Utrecht. (Automatic Signalling on the Netherlands Railways)
      A discussion on the history and details of Automatic Signalling on the Netherlands Railways.(IRSE)
    4. de Blieck, V. J. M., Electrotechnische Aspecten van de NX- Beveiliging, p. Proc. Royal Institute of Engineers of the Netherlands, 1951. (Technical Considerations concerning the Electrical Equipment of the NX Interlocking System)

    5. Verstegen, J. H., Moderne Spoorwegbeveiliging in Verband ment de eerste NX-Beveiliging in Nederland, p. Proc. Royal Institute of Engineers of the Netherlands, 1951. (The application of Modern Signalling Principles in conjunction with the first NX Type Power Interlocking in the Netherlands)

    6. Hesselink, M.G., 150 jaar seinen voor treinen, Wyt, Rotterdam, 1978. (150 years of signals for trains). Dutch. ISBN 90 6007 567 6

    7. Ankersmit, R and J.G.C. van de Meene, De beveiligingen bij de Nederlanse Spoorwegen, p. Op de Rails, December 1980. (The safety installations on the Dutch Railways).
      Special issue of the magazine devoted to the then state of the art signalling. (SRS 81)

  12. New Zealand
    1. Dangerfield, J.A., Train Control in New Zealand, The New Zealand Railway and Locomotive Society Inc., Wellington, 1989. ISBN 0-908573-53-7
      Small booklet detailing the history of Train Control in New Zealand. Naturally extends to CTC and signalling in New Zealand.

  13. South America
    1. Wais, Francisco, Compendio de Explotaci'on T'enica de Ferrocarriles, Editorial Labor, S.A., Barcelona, Madrid, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, 1949. (Handbook of Technical Railway Operation).
      General technical description of railway operation in South America. Includes sections on signalling.(IRSE)

  14. Switzerland
    1. Hundert Jahre Stellwerke bei den Schweizer Bahnen, Generalsekretariat SBB, Bern. (One Hundred years of signal boxes on the Swiss Railways).
      Reprint of 3 articles originally published in the Federal Railways (Swiss) Newsletter (SRS No 79 p 46)

    2. Butz, Rudolf W., Signale der Schweizer Bahnen, Orell Füssli Verlag, Zurich. Swiss Signalling practises (SRS, No 64 p 91)

    3. Signalordnung fuer die Schweizerische Hauptbahnen, Artek AG, Bern.
      Reprint of the Swiss signal regulations of 1874 (SRS No 79 p 46)
    4. Eichmann, K., Die Bedienung von Sicherungseinrichtungen im Eisenbahnbetrieb: Mechanische Sichererungseinrichtungen. (The Operation of Railway Signalling and Interlocking Equipment: Mechanical Apparatus).
      General discussion of how Swiss mechanical signalling works. Targetted at Railway Employees. (IRSE)
    5. Swiss Federal Railways,, Ein Jahrhundert Schewizer Bahnen, II, Verlag Huber & Co, Frauenfeld, Switzerland, 1949. (One Hundred Years of Railways in Switzerland)
      Part of five volume set of history of railways in Switzerland. This volume contains sections on the development of signals and interlocking in Switerland (IRSE)
    6. Oehler, Karl, Eisenbahnsicherungstechnik in der Schweiz. Die Entwicklung der elektrischen Einrichtungen, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, 1981. (Railway signalling engineering in Switzerland. The development of electrical installations)
      Technical description of railway signalling in Switzerland (SRS 81)
    7. Signalbuch der Schweizerischen Bundesbahen, Swiss Federal Railways/Pharos-Verlag, Basel.
      Reprint by the Swiss Federal Railways of the 1982 Rulebook, including photographs and introduction detailing history. Published in German, French and Italian. (SRS, No 79, p45)
    8. Palm, Ernst Th., Stellwerke der Schweizer Bahnen, Orell Füssli Verlay, Zurich, 1982. (Signal boxes of the Swiss Railways) ISBN 3 280 1271 6.
      Covers the development of Swiss signal boxes. Includes overview and description of equipment used. Little historical perspective (SRS 81)

  15. United Kingdom
    1. Proceedings of the Institution of Railway Signal Engineers, Institution of Railway Signal Engineers.
      One or two volumes (of papers presented to the Institution) presented each year.
    2. Preece, William Henry, "On Railway Telegraphs, and the Application of Electricity to the Signalling and Working of Trains," Minutes and Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, vol. XXII, pp. 167-239, 1862-3.
      On the use of the telegraph to railway signalling in the UK at this date (before block signalling was firmly established or fully developed). Mainly about the various forms of block signalling used but also about train orders etc.
    3. Rapier, Richard Christopher, "On the Fixed Signals of Railways," Minutes and Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, vol. XXXVIII, pp. 142-247, 1873-4.
      Excellent review of the development of railway signalling in the UK up to that time. Includes the discussion of the paper. This article was also republished as a book in this year.
    4. Edward, Langdon, William, Application of Electricity to Railway Working, Macmillan & Co, London, 1877. 315pp
      The only applications of electricity to railways in 1877 was telegraph and signalling. This book covers the 'speaking' telegraph (including single line working by telegraph orders), block signalling (historical overview, and the following block instruments: Preece's three wire and one wire, Walker's semaphore, Tyer's, Spagnoleti's, and Siemen's, block signalling, and automatic block signals), and miscellaneous appliaces (signal repeaters, interlocking, point indicators, and intercommunication in trains)
    5. Wolfe-Barry, John and Bramwell, Frederick J., Railways and Locomotives, Longmans, Green, & Co, London, 1882. 292pp (Professional)
      The text of a series of lectures delivered at the School of Military Engineering at Chatham in 1877. Contains a broad outline of (British) railway practice at that time. Contains a good discussion on the history of Block working and Signalling and Interlocking up to that time. These chapters were probably based on an earlier book by J. Wolfe Barry on railway appliances published about 1876. J.Wolfe-Barry also published another book 'Railway Appliances' in 1893 and another in 1906.
    6. Thompson, Arthur Moore, "The Signalling of the London and North- Western Railway," Minutes and Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, pp. 166-230, 1884-5.
      A description of the mechanical signalling on one of the largest UK railway companies at the time. The discussion ranges over signalling of many contempory lines.
    7. Cole, W.H., Notes on permanent way material, platelaying, & points & crossings, 1890 (10th edition 1940). (SL)

    8. Szlumper, Alfred Weeks, "The Signalling at the Waterloo Terminus of the London and South- Western Railway," Min Proc Inst C.E., vol. CXI, pp. 231-256, 1892.
      Description of the signalling in the largest frame in the UK. Includes descriptions of frame, Sykes locking, and complete track & signal diagram
    9. Wolfe Barry, John, Railway Appliances, Longmans, Green & Co, 1893. 331pp (Professional)
      This book seems to be aimed at civil engineers, describing the works of a railway subsequent to the construction of the formation. It includes chapters on signalling and block working. Seems to be very similar to the lectures in 1882.
    10. Langdon, W.E., Application of Electricity to Railway Working, 1897.
      Includes an extensive section on block signalling, single line working, automatic block signalling, lock and block, and associated signalling equipment (e.g. signal repeaters). Includes a table showing type of block instruments in use on the chief railways in GB.
    11. Pigg, James, Railway "block" signalling (The principles of train signalling and apparatus for ensuring safety), Biggs & Co (?), 1898. 387pp + 7pp index
      Detailed discussion of block signalling in the UK. Includes descriptions of block, lock and block, staff, and tablet instruments available and also anciliary equipment (reversers, gate cabin repeaters etc)
    12. Szlumper, Alfred Weeks, "The Signalling on the Waterloo and City Railway," Min Proc Inst C.E., vol. CXLIV, pp. 1-42, 1900.
      Describes the signalling on the tube line between Waterloo station and the city.
    13. Rayner Wilson, H., The Safety of British Railways, 1909. (IRSE)

    14. Rayner Wilson, H., Power Railway Signalling, Railway Engineer, London, 1909 (circa). 342pp Technical
      Comprehensive treatment of signalling equipment operated by power (including the various Block instruments). Contains detailed discussion on the operation of equipment with plans and ciruit diagrams. Extensive coverage of US practice.
    15. Rayner Wilson, H., Mechanical Railway Signalling, Railway Engineer, London, 1909 (circa) (second & revised edition). Technical
      Comprehensive treatment of traditional British mechanical signalling equipment. (Does not include Block working - see Power Railway Signalling). Contains detailed discussion on the operation of equipment with plans. First edition was published in 1900, mainly from authors columns in the Railway Engineer.
    16. Byles, C.B., The First Principles of Railway Signalling, The Railway Gazette, London, 1910 (2nd ed 1918). 146pp (Professional)
      An attempt to describe the principles by which British signalling was then undertaken. Includes an outline of the Legislative framework under which the railways worked.
    17. Blackall, Alfred Thomas, "Railway-Signalling: Developments on the Great Western Railway," Min Proc Inst C.E., vol. 1911, pp. 153-239.

    18. Lewis, Leonard P., Railway Signal Engineering (Mechanical), Constable & Company Ltd, London, 1912 (2nd ed 1920; 3rd ed, rev, 1932).
      Discusses British Signalling and Safeworking. Good on interlocking. 2nd edition 1932.
    19. Collection of Reprints, McKenzie, Holland & Westinghouse Power Signal Co, 1914c.
      This booklet is a collection of reprints of articles describing British signalling schemes undertaken by the company. The articles are about: Glasgow Central Station (Caledonian), 16pp, 8 plates, 1 folding plate (Engineer 11 Sept 1908); Yarnton Junction (GWR), 6pp (Railway Engineer Aug 1909), Slough Bath Road Junct (GWR), 15pp (GWR Magazine, Dec 1913), Central London Railway, 20pp (Railway Gazette, 12 June 1914), London Underground (Signalling Pamphlet No 9), 68pp, 2 folding plates (Engineering, May - June, 1906) and Metropolitan Railway, 16pp (Railway Gazette, 3 Mar 1911)
    20. Catalogue (Section 1 - Mechanical Signalling), Saxby & Farmer Limited, c1914. 201pp

    21. Catalogue, Tyer & Company Ltd, c1915. 105pp + supplements
      Although the catalogue includes frames and signals (etc), most of the equipment is concerned with block working (especially single line working). Includes circuit diagrams of instruments.
    22. Ackfield, W.C., "Development of Main Line Signalling on Railways," J Inst Elect Eng, vol. 53, pp. 763-798, 1915.
      Examples drawn from Midland Ry practice. Discussion follows.
    23. Jacobs, C. M., "Electrical Signalling and Control on Railways," J Inst Elect Eng, vol. 56, pp. 136-152, 199-204, 344-347, 1918.
      Examples drawn mainly from GWR (including key token instrument). Extensive discussion follows.
    24. Lascelles, T.S., "The Sykes electro-mechanical system of automatic train stop," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, vol. III (English Language), pp. 1939-1947, November 1921.
      Technical description of SYX system installed at Seven Sisters Junction, GER.
    25. Tattersall, A.E., Modern Developments in Railway Signalling, Railway Engineer, London, 1921.
      Deals with Track Circuiting, Power Signalling (including interlocking) and Automatic Train Control.
    26. The railway signal and permanent way engineer's pocket book, The Railway Publishing Co, 1922 (2nd ed). 326pp (BIRA 1924 p80, review BIRA Nov 1923, p1050)
      Includes descriptions of BOT requirements, construction of signal boxes, signal lighting, locking frames & rodding, power signalling, automatic block signalling, block instruments, and cab signalling.
    27. Parsons, J. and Cooke, B.W., Notes on Railway Signalling, The Railway Publishing Co, 1923. 74pp (BIRA 1924 p8)

    28. Rayner Wilson, Fras., Railway Signalling: Mechanical, Pitman's Technical Primers, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd, Bath, Melbourne, Toronto, New York, 1923. 109pp (Professional)
      General introduction to British signalling practice using traditional mechanical equipment. Primarily intended to be used by laymen and railway employees who needed to know the fundamentals of railway signalling
    29. Rayner Wilson, H., Railway Accidents: Legislation and Statistics, 1825-1924, 1925. (IRSE)

    30. Tweedie, M.G. and Lascelles, T.S., Modern Railway Signalling, Blackie & Son Limited, London & Glascow, 1925 (corrections 1929). 295pp (Technical)
      Describes typical practice in Britain (but includes some description of Continental signalling). Covers most areas of signalling giving a few typical drawing of the equipment in each area
    31. Rayner Wilson, Fras., Railway Signalling: Automatic, Pitman's Technical Primers, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd, Bath, Melbourne, Toronto, New York, 1928. 116pp (Professional)
      General introduction to Automatic signalling and track circuits. Includes the American speed signalling system. Primarily intended to be used by laymen and railway employees who needed to know the fundamentals of railway signalling
    32. Terminals for Electrical Apparatus for Railway Signalling Purposes, 442 (1932), British Standards Institution.

    33. Tractive Armature Direct-Current Neutral Track Relays, 452 (1932), British Standards Institution.

    34. Track Circuit Insulation, 456 (1932), British Standards Institution. Addendum September 1932

    35. Electric Lamps for Railway Signalling, 469 (1932), British Standards Institution. Addendum June 1935

    36. Tractive Armature Direct-Current Neutral Line Relays, 475 (1932), British Standards Institution.

    37. Tractive Armature Direct-Current Neutral-Polar Line Relays, 519 (1933), British Standards Institution.

    38. Alternating Current Track Relays (2-Element, 2-Position), 520 (1933), British Standards Institution.

    39. Alternating Current Line Relays (Single-Element, 2-Position) for Railway Signalling Purposes, 557 (1934), British Standards Institution.

    40. Alternating Current Line Relays (2-Element, 3-Position) for Railway Signalling Purposes, 561 (1934), British Standards Institution.

    41. Electrically-Driven Point-Operating Machines for Railways, 581 (1934), British Standards Institution.

    42. Colours for Signal Glasses for Railway Purposes, 623 (1935), British Standards Institution.

    43. Plano-Convex (Bullseye) Lenses, 624 (1935), British Standards Institution.

    44. Glossary of Terms used in Railway Signalling, 719 (1936), British Standards Institution.

    45. Galvanised Steel Wire Strand and Solid Steel Wire for Signalling Purposes, 163 (1936), British Standards Institution.

    46. Thermal-Type Time-Element Relays (Alternating or Direct Current) for Railway Signalling, 635 (1936), British Standards Institution.

    47. Railway Mechanical Signalling Apparatus, 689 (1936), British Standards Institution.

    48. Nock, O.S., "Railway Signals - Standard Semaphore Types used in Pre-grouping Days," The Model Engineer, pp. 233-234, 29 Sept 1940.
      Effectively constructional plans & details of the semaphore signals used by the major pregrouping railways in the UK. Continues in 3/10 (p267-8); 24/10 (p316-7); 7/11 (p360-2; 21/11 (p390-3); 5/12 (p439-441); 19/12 (p482-3); 2/1/1941 (p16-20); 16/1 (p49-51); 30/1 (p86-88); 13/2 (p125-7); 27/2 (p171-3); 13/3 (p211-2); 27/3 (p246-7 & 251); 10/4 (p293-4); 24/4 (p331-2); 8/5 (p371-2 & 379); 22/5 (p414-5); 5/6 (p449-50); 19/6 (p488-9); 3/7 (p8-9); 17/7 (p49-50 & 54); 31/7 (p92-4); 2/10 (p263-7); 30/10 (p354-6) & 18/12 (p485)
    49. Taylor, M, Railway Signalling (Railway Signals: How they Work and What they Mean), Sampson Low, 1949. pp84 inc 8 pages of plates and index Popular (SL)
      Popular description of British signalling covering: the development of signals; the block system; the signalman at work; single line working; ATC; power signalling; track circuits; relay interlocking
    50. Blythe, R., Danger Ahead, 1951. (SL)

    51. Railway Signalling Symbols. Part 1 Schematic Symbols, BS 376:Part 1:1951, British Standards Institution. Amendment 1: September 1951. Previous editions in 1936
      This shows the symbols to be used on signalling plans

    52. Railway Signalling Symbols. Part 2 Wiring Symbols and Written Circuits, BS 376:Part 2:1954, British Standards Institution.

    53. Callis, W.H., Principles of the Layout of Signals (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 1, IRSE, 1956 (2nd ed). pp35
      Discusses the types of signal in use in the UK and their use in a particular layout. Contains both mechanical and light signals.

    54. Callis, W.H., Principles of Interlocking (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 2, IRSE, 1956 (2nd ed). pp36
      Discusses the principles of interlocking as applied to British layouts. Examples are based on mechanical layouts.

    55. Such, W.H., Mechanical and Electrical Interlocking (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 3, IRSE, 1956 (2nd ed). pp48
      Discusses the design and construction of frames using both mechanical and electrical interlocking. (Electric locking is where mechanical levers are locked by lever locks energised off contact bands on other levers; not relay locking.) Covers tappet and LNWR tumbler locking.

    56. Doswell, P.C., Single Line Control (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 4, IRSE, 1957 (2nd ed). pp30
      Primarily concerned with Key Token working, but does describe Electric Staff instruments and the No 6 Tablet instrument. Includes Intermediate Instruments; Motor Trolley System of Maintenance and Switching Out.

    57. Callis, W.H., Track Circuits (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 9, IRSE, 1957 (2nd ed). pp28
      About half is concerned with the theory of conventional DC track circuits. The other half is concerned with track circuits on electrified lines; impedance bonds; AC track circuits etc.

    58. Champion, Donald L., Mechanical Signalling Equipment (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 10, IRSE, 1957 (2nd ed; reprint 1980). pp36
      Mainly concerned with rod leads to points and lockbars; particularly compensation. Also contains sections on working signals, gates, and detection.

    59. Day, John R. and B.K. Cooper, Railway Signalling Systems, Mechanical Age Library, Frederick Muller Ltd, London.
      General introduction to signalling (mainly British) (IRSE)

    60. Tyler, J.F.H., Signalling Relays (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 6, IRSE, 1958 (2nd ed; reprint 1980). pp67
      Describes the operating and construction principles behind DC & AC relays, time element relays, and slow acting relays.

    61. Loosemore, J.P., Signal Control Circuits (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 7, IRSE, 1958 (2nd ed), 1968 (3rd ed). pp40
      Describes electric operation of mechanical and light signals. Includes proving and train stop circuits. Also describes the various types of route indicators and subsidiary signals.

    62. Loosemore, J.P., Typical Selection Circuits (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 8, IRSE, 1958 (2nd ed). pp31
      Hotchpotch of subjects. Discuses: repeaters (point, signal & track) in signal box; signal control circuits (stick, selection, etc); electric locking by track circuit on points and signals; and automatic signalling.

    63. Mitchell, D.L., Railway Signalling Power Supplies (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 11, IRSE, 1958 (2nd ed). pp38
      Describes the methods of supplying electric power for signalling functions. Divided into two sections: trickle charged secondary batteries; and direct mains supply

    64. Currey, J.H., Block Instruments (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 12, IRSE, 1958 (2nd ed). pp30
      Mainly concerned with 3-wire 3-position instruments and the controls placed upon them to enforce the block rules. Includes, however, sections on Tyers 1-wire instruments (two position and three position), Sykes Lock and Block, Rotary Block, and Permissive Block instruments.

    65. Mott, J.E., Train Describers (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 13, IRSE, 1958 (2nd ed). pp48
      Describes the train describer based on telephone technology first used on the SR.

    66. Cardani, A., Multiple Aspect Signalling (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 14, IRSE, 1958. pp35
      Describes the two/three/four aspect light signalling used in the UK. Includes section on determining the location of signals for a particular train service and line.

    67. Marshall, N., Principles of Relay Interlocking and Control Panels, IRSE Signalling Booklets, 18, IRSE, 1961. pp44 & 6 fold out plates
      This book is an introduction to relay interlocking as then used in the UK. It describes the evolution of control panels; the standard design of UK panels; the principles of interlocking; the principles of control; and the use of panels as auxiliary to conventional lever frames. Booklets 19 - 22 cover individual frame designs.

    68. Hawkes, J.E., Route Control Systems (W.B. & S. Co), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 20, IRSE, 1961. pp35 & 11 fold out plates
      Description of the NX panels and associated relay interlocking produced by Westinghouse.

    69. Wesley, A.C., Route Control Systems AEI-GRS, IRSE Signalling Booklets, 21, IRSE, 1961. pp20 & 10 fold out plates
      Description of the NX panels and associated relay interlocking produced by AEI-GRS.

    70. Goldsborough, J.V., Route Control Systems: The S.G.E. 1958 Route Relay Interlocking System, IRSE Signalling Booklets, IRSE, 1961. pp24 & 8 fold out plates
      Description of the NX panels and associated relay interlocking produced by SGE.

    71. Langley, P.A., Level Crossing Protection, IRSE Signalling Booklets, 25, IRSE, 1961. pp98
      Description methods of protecting road crossings of railway lines. Includes discussion of: legal requirements; gated crossings (both hand operated and worked from a signal box); occupation crossings; and lifting barriers (mechanically operated, electrically operated with manual control; remote control; and automatic).

    72. Candler, J.E., G.I. Foster, and W.M. Sweetenham, Track and Lineside Signalling Circuits in A.C. Electrified Areas (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 17, IRSE, 1962. pp45
      Describes the methods used to immunise track circuits, lineside circuits and auxiliary circuits from interference from the 25KV 50Hz electrification current.

    73. Dennison, H.F., Economics of Railway Signalling and Track Capacity (as applied to Single Line Railways), United Kingdom Railway Advisory Service, Ministry of Transport, 1962. Booklet

    74. Coley, J.P., Remote Control in Railway Signalling, United Kingdom Railway Advisory Service, Ministry of Transport, 1962. Booklet

    75. Riddle, H.J.N., Axle Counting (and Magnetic Device for Last Vehicle Proving), United Kingdom Railway Advisory Service, Ministry of Transport, 1962. Booklet

    76. Firminger, H. and W. Owen (and others), Route Control Systems (L.T. Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 19, IRSE, 1963. pp52 & 16 fold out plates
      Description of the approach used by London Transport. This describes the control panel, the programme machine setting of routes, the remote controlled power frame, and the general circuits.

    77. Callis, W.H., Holding the Route, IRSE Signalling Booklets, 16, IRSE, 1964. pp26 & 1 folding plate
      Discusses the methods used to hold a route after a signal has been cleared and/or entered the section controlled by the signal.

    78. Currey, J.H., Automatic Warning Systems of Train Control and Trainstops, IRSE Signalling Booklets, IRSE, 1964. pp82 & 2 fold out plates
      Description three systems of ATC then in use in the UK: trainstops; the ex GWR system and the standard BR inductive system.

    79. Grose, B.H., Remote Control of Railway Signal Interlocking Equipment, IRSE Signalling Booklets, 26, IRSE, 1967. pp78 & 5 fold out plates
      Detailed description of methods used to control remote interlockings from a central point.

    80. Hadaway, H.W., Principles of Power Point Control and Detection (British Practice), IRSE Signalling Booklets, 5, IRSE, 1968 (3rd ed). pp48
      Discusses the operation of electro-pneumatic point machines and electric point machines, the detection of the points, and the resulting controls on the point levers. Does not deal with relay interlocking.

    81. The Signalling Record (The Journal of the Signalling Record Society), The Signalling Record Society, 1969-. (Formerly the Signalling Record Society Newsletter.)
      Journal of the UK society devoted to signalling. Contains histories of specific boxes, operating proceedures, and equipment. Mainly concerned with British practice but does include information from other countries. Contact: Send stamped, self addressed envelope to: The Secretary, 178 Birmingham Road, Kidderminster, Worcestershire, DY10 25J

    82. Nock, O.S., British railway signalling; a survey of fifty years' progress, Allen and Unwin, London, 1969. (UC)
      A description of the development of British signalling from the Grouping to the early 1960s. The book oncentrates on the development of power signalling, particularly colour light signalling and signal box concentrations. Notable due to the author's professional involvement, especially valuable for reasons and the personalities of the leading signal engineers.

    83. Hawkes, J., Circuits for Colour Light Signalling, IRSE Signalling Booklets, 15, IRSE, 1969. pp64
      Describes the standard light signals used in the UK. Includes a description of the standard signals and their application; lighting and aspect control; lamps; power supply; and protection

    84. Vaughan, Adrian, A Pictorial Record of Great Western Signalling, OPC (Oxford Publishing Co.), Poole, Dorset, UK, 1973, revised 1984.
      Mainly photographs and drawings, but well captioned. Includes brief history of signalling of GWR and discussion of train working by block signalling and emergency working.

    85. Pope, R., Signalling the Layout, British Railways Practice, IRSE Signalling Booklets, 27, IRSE, 1975. pp53
      Description of methods used to signal British layouts with two, three, or four aspect colour light signalling.

    86. Gasson, H., Signalling Days, Oxford Publishing Co. Memoirs of WR (UK) signalman.(SRS 81)

    87. Johnson, John and Robert A. Long, British Railways Engineering 1948 - 1980, MEP (Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd), 1981. ISBN 0 85298 446 4
      'Official' history of engineering on the BR up to 1980. Includes a chapter on signalling and telecommunications. Good on 'policy'.

    88. White, C.R., Route Control Systems, London Transport Practice, IRSE Signalling Booklets, 28, IRSE, 1981 (rev ed). pp38 & 1 colour plates
      Description of LT practice, including describing the control panel, remote controlled power frame, programme machine operation, and computer control.

    89. Railway Signalling, Adam & Charles Black, London, 1982. ISBN 0 7136 2067 6 Compiled by the IRSE.
      Definitive text on the principles and practices of British railway signalling at the time. Aimed at Signal Engineers.

    90. Foster, Richard D., A Pictorial Record of LNWR Signalling, OPC (Oxford Publishing Co.), Poole, Dorset, UK, 1982. (Enthusiast)
      Despite the name, this is a complete history of signalling practice on the LNWR up to its disolution in 1923. Detailed discussions on equipment and the reasons for changes in design. Many photographs and figures. Good for discussion on the principles of British signalling (as applied by the LNWR) but not much on operation.

    91. Rolt, L.T.C. and Geoffrey Kichenside, Red for Danger, David & Charles, Newton Abbot, London, North Pomfret (VT), 1982 (Fourth Edition).
      General overview of British railway accidents. Includes, but not limited to, those caused by safeworking and signalling.

    92. Instone, M.R.L., Principles of Tappet Interlocking, Signalling Paper, 1, Signalling Record Society, 1982. (No ISBN number) pp7 (1 supl) pp3 drawings
      General introduction to tappet interlocking.

    93. Great Western Railway Lever Frames - The 3-Bar Tappet Frames, Signalling Paper, 2, Signalling Record Society, 1982 (rev 1988). (No ISBN number) pp6 (1 supl) pp5 drawings
      Specific description of one type of tappet frame used on the GWR (UK). Includes historical development of the frame type. Concentrates on the method of applying the locking to the frame.

    94. Great Western Railway Lever Frames - The 5-Bar Tappet Frames, Signalling Paper, 3, Signalling Record Society, 1982 (rev 1983). (No ISBN number) pp6 (1 supl) pp7 drawings
      Specific description of one type of tappet frame used on the GWR (UK). Includes historical development of the frame type. Concentrates on the method of applying the locking to the frame.

    95. Maclean, A.A., A Pictorial Record of LNER Constituent Signalling, OPC (Oxford Publishing Co.), Poole, Dorset, UK, 1983.
      Describes the signalling equipment of the LNER Consitituents. Many photographs and figures.

    96. Nock, O.S., Historic Railway Disasters, Ian Allen Ltd., 1983 (Third Edition).
      British railways accidents. Considers only significant accidents, but does so in greater depth than 'Red for Danger'. Not limited to accidents involving signalling

    97. Price, A, Great Western Railway Lever Frames - The Twist Frames, Signalling Paper, 4, Signalling Record Society, 1983. (No ISBN number) pp8 pp7 drawings
      Specific description of one type of tappet frame used on the GWR (UK). Includes historical development of the frame type.

    98. Morris, J.P., Signalling the Layout - Western Region Practice 1948 - 1972, Signalling Paper, 5, Signalling Record Society, 1983. (No ISBN number) pp14, 2supl, pp6 drawings
      Description of the historical development of signalling on the Western Region of the British Railways (former GWR). Includes development of signals, locking practice, single line working.

    99. Vaughan, Adrian, Exeter West Box, Exeter West Group, 1984. 27pp card cover
      Detailed description of Exeter West signal box. Includes two signal diagrams and description of one days working.

    100. Vaughan, Adrian, Signalman's Morning/Signalman's Twilight, Pan, 1984. ISBN 0 330 28345 6 (Originally published as two books)
      Autobiography of author's time as a signalman at Challow and Uffington (GWR, Britain) between 1960 and 1965. Good descriptions of what it was like to work a classic mechanical signalbox.

    101. Signalling the Layout - Great Western Railway Practice 1900 - 1914, Signalling Paper, 6, Signalling Record Society, 1984. (No ISBN number) pp18, pp4 drawings
      Description of the historical development of signalling on the GWR. Includes development of signals, locking practice, single line working.

    102. Newbould, D.A., Yesterday's Railwayman, Oxford Publishing Company, 1985. ISBN 0 80693 331 8
      Autobiography of author's experiences as a Signalman on the Eastern Region of the BR between 1956 and 1965

    103. Stirling, D., Long and Short Section Tablet Working in Scotland, Signalling Paper, 7, Signalling Record Society. (No ISBN number) pp28 (inc diagrams, photographs & list)
      Description of methods used in Scotland for switching out tablet stations on single line sections.

    104. The Signalling Study Group,, The Signal Box - A Pictorial History and Guide to Designs, OPC (Oxford Publishing Co.), Poole, Dorset, UK, 1986.
      Most of the book is concerned with photographs and descriptions of each design of signalbox constructed by British railway companies and the signalling contractors. Poorer coverage after Nationalisation. Good chapters on the development of the signal box, signalling, and the signal contractors. Also good chapter on the general design and fittings of signalboxes.

    105. Kay, Peter, Roger Newman, and John Dixon, Signal Box Directory 1987, The Signalling Study Group, 1987. 98pp + 8pp amendment list
      Complete list of UK Signalboxes in use in 1987 listing Box type, box date, frame type, frame date, length, and locking type.

    106. Past Aspects, Exeter West Group, 1987. 44pp card cover
      A collection of 11 essays by various people about traditional signalling in the UK. Some of the essays are by enthusiasts, others by ex signalmen.

    107. Vaughan, Adrian, The West of England Resignalling, Railway World Special, Ian Allan, 1987. ISBN 0 7110 1744 1
      This book describes the resignalling of the West of England main line (GWR) in late 1978 when 43 mechanical boxes were replaced by 2 panel boxes. Much description and many photographs.

    108. Hall, Stanley, Danger Signals, Ian Allen Ltd, 1988. (Enthusiast) British railway accidents.
      Concentrates on 'modern' accidents (most post war). This book is concerned with accidents due to operators (eg signalmen, drivers etc)

    109. Stratton, D.H., Solid State Interlocking, IRSE Signalling Booklets, 29, IRSE, 1988. pp20 & 9 plates
      Overview of the principles of computer based signalling (SSI)

    110. Price, Alan, Signal Box Diagrams of the GWR and BR(WR), Signalling Paper, 8, Signalling Record Society, 1988 (rev). (No ISBN number) pp24 pp20 diagrams
      Description of the diagrams hung in signal boxes showing the track layout and signals. Includes description of the development of symbols and an account of the draughtsmen and women.

    111. Morris, John, Signalling the Layout - Great Western Railway Practice 1915 - 1947, Signalling Paper, 9, Signalling Record Society, c1988. (No ISBN number) pp24, pp2 drawings, & appendix
      Description of the historical development of signalling on the GWR. Includes development of signals, locking practice, single line working.

    112. Alexander, Forbes, The Scottish Region Tokenless Block, Signalling Paper, 10, Signalling Record Society, c1988. (No ISBN number) pp58 inc 3 appendices, pp11 circuit diagrams
      Extensive description of the development and operation of the tokenless block instruments used for single line working in Scotland. Obviously written with the help of at least some of the designers.

    113. Hall, Stanley, Danger on the Line, Ian Allen Ltd, 1989. (Enthusiast) British railway accidents.
      Concentrates on 'modern' accidents (most post war). This book is concerned with accidents due to engineering

    114. Vaughan, Adrian, Obstruction Danger, Patrick Stephans Limited, 1989.
      British railway accidents. Selected for their lessons that can be taught about operating railways.

    115. Francis, J.D., The Style 'L' Power Frame, Author, 1989. ISBN 0 9514636 0 8
      Detailed discussion of the Westinghouse Brake & Signal Style 'L' frame. Includes design considerations, histories of individual frames, and interlocking details (electric interlocking)

    116. Hall, Stanley, Railway Detectives (150 years of the Railway Inspectorate), Ian Allen, Shepparton, Surrey, 1990. ISBN 0 7110 1929 0 (Enthusiast)
      History of the Railway Inspectorate in the UK. This inspectorate is charged with inspecting the safe working of the railways in the UK - in particular this involves investigating the causes of accidents.

    117. Vaughan, Adrian, Signalman's Reflections (A personal celebration of semaphore signalling), Silver Link Publishing, 1990. ISBN 0-947971-54-8
      Mainly book of photographs of traditional British signalling. Extended Captions. Some stories at the front of the book.

    118. Stirling, D, Electric Token Block Instruments, Signalling Paper, 11, Signalling Record Society. (No ISBN number) pp44 inc diagrams and photos, index
      Description of all known token instruments used to control single lines in the UK or produced by UK manufacturers. Includes operational description.

    119. Allen, D and Woolstenholmes, C.J., A Pictorial Survey of Railway Signalling, OPC, 1991. ISBN 0 86093 453 5
      Book of 244 photographs of signalling in the UK. Each photo comes with two extended captions: one describing the train or location in the photo; the second describing the signalling interest. The photos are organised into signalling topics: Nostalgia; Principles of Semaphore Signalling; Pre-grouping signal boxes; Single Line Working; Signalling Materials; Level Crossing Protection; Survivors; Principles of Colour Light Signalling; Ground Frames; Doncaster in Transition; BR Signal Boxes; Aberdeen; Gantries; Shrewsbury

    120. Freezer, C.J., Model Railway Signalling, Patrick Stephens Ltd., 1991. ISBN 1-85260-174-4
      Aimed at UK railway modellers. Describes how to model traditional and modern UK signalling. Basic introduction into the principles of signalling.

    121. Railway Control Systems, Adam & Charles Black, London, 1991. ISBN 0-7136 3402-0; & ISBN 0-7136-3508-8 (IRSE Edition) Compiled by the Institution of Railway Signal Engineers. [MA]
      Sequel to Railway Signalling 1982 Edition, Definitive text on the principles and practices of British railway signalling, concentrates on newer 1990's technology. Aimed at Signal Engineers.

    122. Hall, Stanley, BR Signalling Handbook, Ian Allen, Shepparton, Surrey, 1992. ISBN 0 7110 2052 3 (Enthusiast)
      General introduction to current British Signalling practice. Covers Historical development of signals; colour light signalling; absolute block signalling; AWS & ATP; single line working; level crossing; detectors; and future developments.

    123. Crosier, Larry, The Marks System, Signalling Paper, 12, Signalling Record Society. (No ISBN number) pp11
      Description of the system used to classify signalboxes in the UK (as to the difficulty in working) for the purposes of deciding the appropriate pay and conditions of the signalmen.

    124. The Signalling Study Group,, A Guide to Mechanical Locking Frames, The authors.
      Detailed listing of all known mechanical frames used in the UK. Describes the method of locking and methods of identifying the frames.

    125. Edwards, D.W., A Comprehensive List of British Mechanical Signalling Frames. Vols I and II. Try John Dixon, 16 St. Davids Terrace, Saltney Ferry, Chester, CH4 8AF (1985 address) (SRS 90)

    126. Johnson, S.D., The Southampton Signal Boxes - The final years, Southampton University Transport Society.
      Description of 16 signal boxes in the Southampton area over the final 25 years. Try Students Union, The University, Southampton SO9 5NH (SRS 6)

    127. Allen, D and Woolstenholmes, C.J., A Pictorial Survey of London Midland Signalling, OPC, 1996. ISBN 0 86093 523-X. 143 Pages [MA]
      Detailed photgraphic coverage of Signalling & signalboxes of British Railways London Midland Region in England and Wales, Crewe, Chester, Preston are highlited, most of the pictures are less that 10 years old, a period of unpresendented change, includes equiptment having survived from the LMS predecosers including the LNWR, Midland & Lancashire & Yorkshire Rialways.

    128. Anthony Hidden QC, Inveestigation into the Clapham Junction Railway Accident, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, IBSN 0-10-108202-9, 230 Pages [MA]
      Full report into the Clapham Junction Railway Accident, caused by bad working practices in Railway Signalling. Full Technical Descriptions included, as well as Causes and recomendations.

    129. L.G. Warburton, A Pictorial Record of L.M.S Signals, OPC, 1972, ISBN 0-902888-09-9. 58 Pages [MA]
      Pictorial record of the development of L.M.S Standard semphore signals and signal boxes which occoured following the appointment of A.F. Bound as Signal & Telegraph Engineer in 1929.

    130. Adrian Vaughan, Signalmans Reflections - A personal celebration of semaphore signalling. Silver Link Publishing 1990. ISBN 0-947971-54-8, 191 Pages. [MA]
      Biographal & personal view by the author of of people and signalling systems and personal reminisciences. Historiacal and factual.

    131. George Pryer, A Pictorial Record of Souther Signals, OPC 1977, Revised and reprinted 1991. ISBN 0-902888-81-1. 200 Pages. [MA]
      Pictorial Record of Southern railway signalling of many things appertaing to signalling which were once part of everyday scene and have now vanished forever.

    132. Michael A. Vans, abc Signalling in the Age of Steam, Ian Allen Ltd., 1995 IBSN 0-7110-2350-6. 112 Pages Handbook. [MA]
      Emphasis on typical, traditional & commonplace, including rules and regulations, Historical. from 1860's through to 1968.

    133. Michael A. Vans, An Illustrated History of Signalling, Ian Allen Ltd., 1997 IBSN 0-7110-2551-7. 144 Pages. [MA]
      Attempts the whole story of Signalling from 1830 through to privitations in 1994 in a historical context. Complementary to authors previous book 'abc Signalling in the Age of Steam' (Ian Allen 1995)

    134. Geoffry Kitenside & Alan Williams; Two Centuries of Railway Signalling, OPC 1998. IBSN 0-86093-514-8. 248 Pages. [MA]
      Detailed History of the development of railway signalling, from the earliest days, through disc & crossbar, semaphores and coloured lights to all the modern systems of 1990s.

  16. North America
    1. Railway Signaling
      Magazine devoted entirely to Railway Signalling. Ran from June 1908 (Vol 1 No 1) to March 1970 (Vol 63 No 3) under a variety of titles (Railway Signaling, Railway Signal Engineer, Signal Engineer). After 1970 became Railway Control Systems, April 1970 (Vol 1 No 1)
    2. American Railway Signalling[:] Principles and Practices. Association of American Railroads (Signal Section). New York. Technical.
      Definitive texts on American signalling practices. Issued in chapters. Each chapter is a separate booklet. The chapters are (in 1947):
      Symbols, Aspects and Indications
      Principles and Economics of Signalling
      Centralized Traffic Control
      Direct Current Relays
      Direct Current Track Circuits
      Alternating Current Relays
      Alternating Current Relays
      Semaphore Signals
      Light Signals
      Automatic Block Signals
      Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Interlocking
      Electro-Pneumatic Interlocking
      Electric Interlocking
      Interlocking Circuits
      Hump Yard Systems
      Manual Block Systems
      Highway Crossing Protection
      Power Distribution Systems
    3. Proceedings of the Signal Section of the American Railway Association, American Railway Association. Formerly the Railway Signal Association (Tweedie & Lascelles)

    4. Elliott, W.H., Block and Interlocking Signals, 1896.
      Deals only with American Practice (IRSE)

    5. Derr, W.L., Block Signal Operation, New York, 1897. (Tweedie & Lascelles)

    6. Adams, B.B., The Block System of Signalling on American Railways, New York, 1901. (IRSE & Tweedie & Lascelles)

    7. W., Forman, Harry and Josserand, Peter (Rev), Rights of Trains, Simons-Boardman Publishing Corp, New York, 1904, 2nd ed 1925; 3rd 1945; 4th 1951. pp397+ix, inc index
      This book is a commentary on the US rulebooks; particularly those rules relating to Train Order working. It is based on the American Standard Rules with comparisons with the rules from a number of major railways. The purpose of the book is to clarify what the rules mean and the implications which follow from particular wording.

    8. Lavarack, F.C., Locking, 1907. Deals only with American Practice (IRSE)

    9. Railway Signalling, 1908. Collection of articles from "Electric Journal," Pittsburg USA. (IRSE)

    10. Adams, B.B. and Hitt, R., Railroad Signal Dictionary, Railway Signal Association, 1908 (First Edition). (IRSE)

    11. Scott, R., Automatic Block Signals and Signal Circuits, 1908.
      American practice in the installation and maintenance of signals electrically controlled and operated by electric or other means (IRSE & SL)

    12. Brandt, Latimer, James, Railway signaling in theory and practice, Mackenzie-Klink publishing company, Chicago, 1909. pp420 inc index & app
      Intended as an elementary textbook on the subject for new Signal Engineers. Comprensive account of signalling practiced in the US by the Signal Engineer of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RR with historical allusions and opinions. Includes sections on: mechanical and power frames; mechanical signals & point working; electro- pneumatic signalling; electric signalling; locking; track & other circuits; manual block working; and automatic signals.

    13. Henry, Elliot, William, The ABC of railroad signaling; a lecture delivered before the Harvard school of business administration, Mackenzie-Klink publishing company, Chicago, 1909. (UC)

    14. Latimer, J.B., Railway Signalling in Theory and Practice, 1909.

    15. Railway Signaling, III, The School of Railway Signaling, Utica, N.Y., 1910. Technical
      This volume contains a detailed discussion of American signalling practice in the following areas: Wires and Cables; Pole Line Construction; DC Relays; DC Track Circuits and Highway Crossing Signals.

    16. General Railway Signal Company, Electric Interlocking Handbook, Rochester, N.Y., 1913. 435pp (Technical)
      Describes the design, operation, installation, and maintenance of the GRS Electric Interlocking System. Very broad coverage of issues as many purchasers would have had no experience of power signalling.

    17. Railway Signaling, IV, The School of Railway Signaling, Utica, N.Y., 1914. Technical
      This volume contains a detailed discussion of American practice in the following areas: signal towers; the mechanical working of points and signals; interlocking machines; the locking of interlocking machines; and the operation of railways (including the use of train orders). Intended audience seems to be Signal Engineers.

    18. General Railway Signal Company, G-R-S Electro-Mechanical Interlocing Machines (Bulletin 132), Rochester, N.Y., March 1916. 20pp
      Technical pamphlet covering application of Model 2 power frame to Improved Saxby & Farmer mechanical frame to produce an electro-mechanical frame.

    19. Borland, W.P., "The United States Government viewpoint of automatic train control," Bulletin of the International Railway Association, vol. III (English Language), pp. 431- 435, April 1921.
      ICC reasons for requiring ATC in the US.

    20. Edgar, King, Everett, Railway Signaling, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc, New York, 1921. First Edition (OC & SL, IRSE)

    21. Brandt, Otho William, Explanation of train roles, train orders, special instructions, and rules governing the use of block signals and interlocking plants, Kansas City, Mo, USA, 1922. (2nd ed, 174p) (Note in IRA Bulletin, 1922)

    22. Maintenance of Way Cyclopedia, Simons-Boardmann Publishing Co, 1922. (860pp)
      Contains lengthy section on signaling. Succesor to the Dictionary, but not nearly as detailed. (Note in IRA Bulletin, 1922)

    23. Proceedings (Signal Section), XXII, American Railroad Association, Feb 1925. (Note in IRA Bulletin 1925)

    24. Union Switch & Signal Co., The Signal in the Cab. Bull. 144, 1930.

    25. Westinghouse Air Brake Co., 75th Anniversary of the Westinghouse Air Brake Company, 1944.

    26. R., Rockwell, Ray, Automatic Railway Signalling, International Textbook Company, 1932. 1945 Edition
      It describes semaphore (both GRS and USS mechanisms), color light, color-position light, searchlight, and position light signals and circuits for automatic block signalling. It also has a section on crossing protection. The author was instructor of railway signalling at the Rochester (NY) Athenaeum and Mechanics Institute.
    27. Phillips Jr., Edmund J., Railroad Operations and Railway Signaling, Simons-Boardman Publishing Corporation, New York, 1942 (second printing 1953). (800) 228-9670.
      Detailed question/answer format description of US signalling practice at the middle of the century. Includes sections on block working (both manual and automatic) and a very long section on interlockings, concentrating on the circuits.

    28. Electrical Railway Signalling Equipment, The Siemens and General Electric Railway Signal Co Ltd (SGE), 1947. 488pp Technical

    29. General Railway Signal Company, Elements of Railway Signalling, Rochester, N.Y., 1954. (Technical)
      American power signalling practice in the middle '50s. Includes discussions on Track Ciruits (Coded and Non Coded), Block Signalling (uni-directional and bi-directional), Adjuncts (Switch Locks, detectors etc), Cab Signals, Train Control Systems, Level Crossing Protection, Relay Interlocking, CTC, Automatic Car Classification, and Power Supplies.

    30. Armstrong, John, All about Signals, Kalmbach Publishing Co, 1957. (reprinted 1983). ISBN 0-89024-502-9
      Reprint of articles from the June and July 1957 issues of Trains. General introduction to U.S. signalling.

    31. United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment, Automatic Train Control in Rail Rapid Transit, US Government, May 1976.
      Examination of ATC systems in use on existing US Transit lines with an evaluation of their effectiveness. The systems covered are BART (San Francisco), CTA (Chicago), MBTA (Massachusetts), NYCTA (New York), and PATCO (New York)

    32. Shaw, Robert T., A History of Railroad Accidents, Safety Precautions and Operating Practices, Vail-Ballou Press Inc, 1978.
      Discusses American railway accidents. Includes, but not limited to, those caused by safeworking and signalling.

    33. Gamst, Frederick C., "Highballing with Flimsies: Working under Train Orders," The Railway History Monograph, vol. 19, no. 1 & 2, J-B Publishing Company, Crete, Nebraska, January/April 1990.
      Description of operation by train orders on the SP in the late 70s. Includes description of operation on the Santa Barbara Subdivision of the Los Angeles Divsion.

    34. Fisher, Bill, 30 Years over Donner, Trans-Anglo Books (a division of Interurban Press), Glendale, California, 1990.

    35. Alternating Current Signalling, Union Switch and Signal Co, Swissvale, Pennsylvania. (F. Rayner Wilson)

    36. Signaling and traffic control system standards: task 205, National Technical Information Service (US Government), Washington, DC, 1978.
      Prepared for U.S. Dept of Transportation, Federal Railway Administration, Northeast Corridor Improvement Project (UC)

  17. Unknown Countries
    1. Ceradini, G, Block-sistema automatico. (SL)

    2. Cooke, B.W. and Parsons, J., Notes on Railway Signalling. (IRSE)

    3. Stretton, C.E., Safe Railway Working, 1893. (IRSE)

    4. Anderson, J., Electric Locking, Chicago, 1917. (IRSE & SL)

    5. Cordeal, E., Railroad Operation, 1924. (IRSE)

    6. Dunn, J.H., Signal Kinks, 1927. (IRSE)

    7. Mashour, M, Human factors in signalling systems; specific applications to railway signalling, J. Wiley, New York, 1974. (UC)

    8. Service, National Technical Information, Railroad signals and signaling (Jan 70 - Mar 81), 1981.
      Citations from the Engineering index data base (UC)
    9. Computers in railway installations, track and signalling, Computational Mechanics, Springer-Verlag, 1987. (UC)

    10. Zeitchrift für das gesamte Eisenbahn-Sicherungswesen, Berlin. (Tweedie & Lascelles)

Data: Andrew Waugh
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